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Fundamental Information

 

Demographic Characteristics of the Sreemangal Pourashava

 

Population Distribution

According to 2001 population census the area of the Pourashava was 572.84 acre (excluding Extended area), and is 19418 with 10623 male and 8795 female. According to Sreemongal Pourashava its present population 23393 persons with 12798 male and 10596 female. And the physical feature survey shows the project area of Sreemongal Pourashava area is1226.05 acres along with 651.95 acres extended area. According to population census the male female ratio is 120: 100 (BBS, 2001).

 

Population Density

According to BBS 2001, the density of urban population of Sreemongal was 19418 persons per acre (34 persons per acre) with a decadal growth rate of 1.88%. As per the survey finding it is 23393 persons per acre within Sreemongal Pourashava in 2011. At present Ward no. 02 is the densely populated area. Its ppa is 133 ppa and the is the next highest density is 71 found at Ward no. 03.

Age-Sex Structure

The maximum percentage (24.65%) of the sample population falls within the 16-25 age group of which almost 21.57% of male population and rest 28.36% of female. The lowest percentage of population falls within 56-65 and 65+ age group.

 

Household Size

Average household size of the project area is about 5.37 and is more than the national average of about 4.5. It reflects that national population control program has less impact in this area. The household sizes in the area range from a low of 1 to a high of 10 and above. The household size range 4-5 is found to be larger among the households taken for interview. This household size occupies almost 47% among the total households followed by more than 26% of 6-7 numbers of family members. 9 percent of the households have 8-9 family members. More than 6 percent has family size above 10.

 

Marital Status

Socio economic survey shows that the percentage of married population is more than fifty percent, though it varies in cases of male and female population. About 4 percent of female population are widow or divorced. There are no male people in these groups. It represents the social vulnerability of women folk.

Growth Rate

The annual population growth rate of the Pourashava is 1.88 (BBS, 2001). It is higher than the national growth rate (1.54%).

Migration Pattern

According to the household survey almost half of the respondents are living here from the birth. Again 32 percent respondents live Sreemongal more than 20 years and about 12 percent respondents live here from 11 to 20 years.

Maximum households (21%) migrated to this Pourashava for business purpose. For service or transfer in service is another reason for temporary settlement here. Availability of better educational facilities is another cause of migration

.

 

Education Status

About 7 percent of the total population is illiterate according to the socio-economic survey finding. Of them more than 5 percent of the male population has no education where as female percentage is 8.69percent. 26 percent of surveyed population of Sreemongal Pourashava has only primary level of education. 7.66 percent of population has educational background up to degree level. More than 2 percent of respondents in Sreemongal are Master degree holder. 0.63 percent of the surveyed population falls in the category of Doctor/engineer/Advocate group. Only one has technical education.

 

Religion

Religious composition of the study area population has various implications for area planning and overall welfare of the study area population. Almost 75 percent people of the study area belongs to the Muslim community, the remaining others are Hindus. There is no other religious community within Sreemongal Pourashava.

 

 

Occupational Status

Occupational status of the household is highly relevant for assessing the socio-economic status of the families. This has a relationship with income, employment and poverty of the population.

Primary Occupation

Occupational status of the household is highly relevant for assessing the socio-economic status of the families. This has a great impact on employment and poverty reduction. Some households have morethan one occupation. About 50 percent of the total surveyed population are engage in different sort of employment. Business is the main source of employment. 18 percent are doing business. 4.36 percent is deployed ingovernment/autonomous organizations, of them 12 are female. A negligible percentage of female population is employed in private company. A small percentage of both male and female are engaged in NGOs. Both landlord and landless farmers are only 1 in number. 9.58 percent of the working force is unemployed. Of the total surveyed population, 28 percent is student and female out numbered its opposite sex.

Secondary Occupation

Very nominal number of respondents has other type of engagement as secondary occupation. Of the total active working force only 9 have extra occupation. They are mostly engaged in business and NGO sector.

Income and Expenditure of the Households

Monthly income and expenditure of the households indicate socio-economic status of people living in an area. This also allows determination of the household saving rate. Here income means earning in monetary terms of a household for a month from all sources, such as production, property, salary and business and expenditure means amount of money that a household spends for all types of consumption.


Percentage Distribution of the Household by Monthly Income and Expenditure at Sreemongal Pourashava

Income/Expenditure level

Income

Expenditure

No.

Percentage (%)

No.

Percentage (%)

Up to 2000

1

0.48

1

0.48

2001-3000

9

4.31

7

3.33

3001-4000

9

4.31

8

3.81

4001-5000

10

4.78

15

7.14

5001-6000

17

8.13

18

8.57

6001-8000

26

12.44

31

14.76

8001-10000

35

16.75

29

13.81

10001-12000

23

11.00

26

12.38

12001-15000

28

13.40

22

10.48

15001-20000

24

11.48

30

14.29

20001-50000

20

9.57

19

9.05

50001-100000

2

0.96

3

1.43

100000+

3

1.44

1

0.48

Total

210

100

210

100

  Source: Socio-economic Survey (UTIDP), 2009

Income level

Maximum number of household (about 16.75%) earned Tk.8001-Tk.10000/month. Almost similar percentage of families earning level is between Tk.15001-Tk.20000/month. Total 11 percent of family has earning level of Tk. 20000-Tk.50000/month. There are 3 families in Sreemongal whose earnings are more than Tk. 1,00,0000. Distribution of households based on income level is given in t6he above Table.

Expenditure level

It is extremely difficult to ascertain the actual expenditure of families and also it is difficult to find the real income of a family. An attempt was made in the questionnaire to have an idea about the level of expenditure of the respondent families.The expenditure pattern of the households in the Pourashava indicate that more than 14 percent spends Tk. 6001-Tk.8000 as monthly expenditure, whereas more than 14 percent of the families spend money within Tk. 15001-Tk.20000/ month. It is the general theory that the propensity to consume is greater among the poor. And same is the case in Sreemangal.

Identification of Problems Concerning Socio-Economic Condition

The age distribution of population selected for socio-economic study in the project area. The maximum percentage (24.65%) of the sample population falls within the 16-25 age group of which almost 21.57% of male population and rest 28.36% of female. The lowest percentage of population falls within 56-65 and 65+ age groups.

Total 7 percent of the total population is illiterate according to the socio-economic survey finding. Of them more than 5 percent of the male population has no education where as female percentage is 8.69 percent. Almost 26 percent of surveyed population of Sreemongal Pourashava has only primary level of education. Only 7.66 percent of population has educational background up to degree level. More than 2 percent of respondents in Sreemongal have postgraduate degrees. Only 0.63 percent of the surveyed population falls in the category of Doctor/engineer/Advocate group.

 

About 50 percent of the total surveyed population are engage in different sort of employment. Business is the main source of employment. Total 18 percent are doing business. A negligible percentage of female population is employed in private company. A small percentage of both male and female are engaged in NGOs. Both landlord and landless farmers are only 1 in number. Total 9.58 percent of the working force is unemployed.

 

Household perception shows, flooding of roads during monsoon, narrow width of roads and poor maintenance are the major road problems in the town. About 74% of the households reported having pucca roads in front of their houses. However, only 17% of the respondents agree to contribute land towards road widening. About 40 percent have semi pucca drain along their house.Almost 17 percent has katcha drain and 10 percent households have no drainage facility.

 

The value of land varies across different wards of the Pourashava. The value of lands is very high in some wards than others. The highest residential land value at Sreemongal Pourashava is found in Ward no. 09. Here per decimal average land value is Tk.422222 and the lowest land value per decimal was found in Ward no. 04 (Tk. 174000/ decimal).

 

 

At present, not many environmental problems are observed, but there are threats for earthquakes because of the geology of the region and vulnerabilities for annual flush floods including water logging. Only 21 percent respondents said that they have environmental problem at Sreemongal Pourashava.

 

Identification of Prospect Concerning Socio-Economic Condition

The socio-economic findings point out a number of urban problems identified by the respondents that call for taking measures to resolve them. Measures are needed to prevent and resolve drainage problems of the town with urgency. Steps are also necessary to provide piped water to the citizens as a basic urban service. Management of solid waste must be given importance as it will take precarious turn with increasing urbanization. Attention has to be given in the proposed plan to keep provision for wider roads, as the narrow roads have been found problematic for traffic movement. Terminal facilities for different modes of transport have to be considered in the master plan in order to maintain traffic order and avoid traffic conflicts in the future. The land levels of the Pourashava and availability of the vacant lands will help better distribution of land uses.

An Overview of Population Projection

In absence of data for previous census years for Pourashava, it has been difficult task to collect information on population. The details of the estimation of population is made has been discussed below.

 

Basis of Population Projection Method

Perhaps no single factor is more important for planning than the size and composition of population and the way it will change in the future. Estimating future population for a specific period for a particular area is one of the most difficult tasks in the planning process. For Bangladesh, population projection is a very difficult task as the required data are not available for particular area and same is the case for Sreemongal Pourashava.

On the other hand, the difference of data from different secondary sources also makes the job more problematic. The population figures collected from secondary sources especially for Pourashava were very much ambiguous. So for the final projection, several discussions were made with experts and BBS officials. Following the annual growth rate for the study area available from the 2001 Population Census, the projection up to the year 2031 with five years interval has been made.

To calculate the future population of the area, the following formula is used.

Pn = Po (1+ r)t where,

Po = the base year,

Pn = the projected year,

t = time period,

r = annual growth rate.

Assumptions

The basic objective of the study is to estimate the population of the Pourashava for the year 2011, which would be the base year population. First using the base year population, a projection of the study area population at five yearly intervals up to 2031 is made on the basis of some assumptions. In general, the projection is made on the basis of trends in population growth observed in the past, and looking ahead the development prospects in future.

The important issues to be considered are;

- The natural growth;

- Composition of the population, particularly the age breaks;

Net migration;

- The annexation of new areas with the existing town.

 

Projected Population by Mouza/Ward

On the basis of the above formula, ward wise population of Sreemongal Pourashava has been estimated up to the year 2031 with a five year interval. As the data are available from 2001 so it has been taken as base year.


The existing estimated population of Sreemongal Pourashava is 41620 in 2011 within an area of 1226.05 acre and the population of the extended area is 18227 in 2001. According to 2001 Population Census, it was 19418 within the Pourashava and 15130 within the extended area. With an annual growth rate of 1.88%, the forecasted population of Sreemongal Pourashava will be 33326 in the year 2030 and 25967 in the extended area. The gross density of the area will be 58 ppa (person per acre) in the Pourashava area and 40 persons per acre in the extended area. And the over all density within the project area will 49 persons per acre in 2031. Due to the maximum concentration of residence in ward no. 02, the density of population will also be higher (103ppa) in this zone.

Population Projection for Sreemongal Pourashava up to 2031

 

Ward no.

Area(In
Acre)

Pop'01

PPA

Pop'11

PPA

Pop'16

PPA

Pop'21

PPA

Pop'26

PPA

Pop'31

PPA

Ward-1

202.49

1457

7

1755

9

1927

10

2115

10

2321

11

2548

13

Ward-2

19.972

2160

110

2602

133

2856

146

3135

160

3441

176

3777

193

Ward-3

46.07

2774

59

3342

71

3668

78

4026

85

4419

94

4850

103

Ward-4

39.957

1794

44

2161

53

2372

58

2604

64

2858

70

3137

77

Ward-5

51.833

3031

56

3652

68

4008

74

4399

82

4828

90

5300

98

Ward-6

50.365

2489

48

2999

58

3291

64

3612

70

3965

77

4352

84

Ward-7

41.77

1859

45

2240

54

2458

60

2698

65

2961

72

3250

79

Ward-8

68.192

2482

36

2990

43

3282

47

3602

52

3954

57

4340

63

Ward-9

48.414

1372

29

1653

35

1814

39

1991

42

2186

47

2399

51

Pourashava Area

569.063

19418

34

23393

41

25677

45

28183

49

30933

54

33953

59

Extended Area

653.684

15130

23

18227

28

20006

31

21959

34

24102

37

26454

40

Project Area

1222.747

34548

28

41620

34

45683

37

50142

41

55035

45

60407

49

 

Source: 1. BBS, 2001. Estimation by the Consultant (Sheltech Pvt. Ltd).

Note: Medium Growth rate for Population projection has been considered as 1.88%.

 

Housing

Different aspects of housing in the Pourashava are discussed here.

Introduction

Housing means shelter or the means of providing shelter. Good housing can help to raise the productivity of an area’s labor force and accelerate its development process. So housing should be considered as a priority area for development. An attempt has been made to draw a picture of the existing housing situation of Sreemongal including its problems. It highlights mainly the prevailing situation and the constraints prevailing in the housing sector, and as well as local housing development program, future housing needs and the necessity for ground work for drawing an effective strategy and policy for housing development.

Housing Condition

Total number of residential structure at Sreemongal Pourashava is 5580. Among these 1633 structures are katcha, 2665 structures are semi pucca and rest 1282 structures are pucca. Among the pucca structure, 54.13% structure are single storied. Dominance of katcha and semi pucca residential structures will create scope for the application of set back rule of new plan during construction of permanent structure within Pourashava jurisdiction.

Ownership pattern

Ownership pattern of residential structures of Sreemongal Pourashava broadly divided into public and privately owned structure. Among the total 5580 residential structures almost 100 structures are owned by different government organizations and the rest 5480 residential structures are owned by individual households or different private organizations within the Pourashava.

Building Materials Used

Uniform building materials are generally used throughout Bangladesh for construction. Materials used for permanent construction are usually, brick, sand, cement, stone chip, rod, etc. But the intensity of the use of materials and prices of materials vary between regions.

As stated earlier, in housing structure, overall, 29.26 percent residential structure of the area is katcha, about 48% is semi-pucca and the remaining 22% is pucca.

Floor Area

The floor area is important consideration in building houses to maintain standard. The practices of building rules in other cities and towns of Bangladesh will have to be analyzed to formulate and apply rules on floor area in the Master Plan of Sreemongal Pourashava.

 

Occupancy Rate

Number of rooms occupied by number of persons in a household and total space used by a household is also the indicator of the quality of housing the households enjoy. Usually in low-income areas, per person space use is much smaller than in upper income areas. As Sreemongal is a small town with local population, most of the households inherit their houses. Even income is not the criterion for the type and size of a dwelling unit. Although land is not scarce in this town at present, so the rate of occupancy is not a problem here. But keeping the future development of the town in mind, a standard occupancy rate has to be set at the final planning phase.

Housing Finance

In general, urban housing is a complicated and expensive process. Despite all these disadvantages people go for having their own housing mainly for shelter and social security and secondly for earning some dividend from housing investment. A complete urban housing involves a series of activities from land purchase to construction.

Among all these phases, the process of financing is perhaps, the most difficult one. Due to severe limitations in institutional and non-institutional housing credit at affordable interest rate in Bangladesh, overwhelming majority of the land owners have to depend on self financing.

Problems Concerning Housing

·            Poor Quality and Vulnerable Housing Materials

The quality of materials used by the dwellers is very low that has to be replaced very frequently. This involves costs. Again these non-permanent housing materials highly flammable and when a fire breaks out the poor lose their all possessions.

·            Spontaneous Housing Development

Spontaneous house building is common in Sreemongal. This causes degradation of quality of housing as well as destruction of natural environment.

·            Lack of Infrastructure and Services

Provision of adequate and quality infrastructure and services determines the quality of living. Majority of the households in the Pourashava have no connection of drains. Only 2% of the households have pucca drains and 22% households have katcha drains. More than 80% of the use sanitary toilets and the rest have non-sanitary facilities. About quality of different services of the Pourashava, people have mixed reactions.

·        Lack of Housing Finance

Housing finance is one of the most important problems of housing promotion. Those who have land can not go for construction due to lack of housing capital.

Prospects Concerning Housing

Most of the people of Sreemongal are local. Only a small percentage of people are migrants from elsewhere, but have been living here for a long time. The survey also reveals that most of the people are not interested at all to move from here in future. This may be a positive factor for future development as people know themselves since their early life. This will enable the local authority to encourage a participatory approach in development.

An Overview on Housing Projection

Housing forms an important component in the allocation and distribution of residential lands in the Master Plan.

Basis of Projection

The main basis of housing projection is the size of the population. The annual rate of growth and future estimated population are important for housing demand. Following basis has guided the housing projection:

·        Existing housing situation

·        Housing occupancy rate

·            Housing pattern (housing types, horizontal and vertical houses)

·        Migration or rental pattern

·        Population growth rate and

·        Housing demand

Creation of new families out of existing population and arrival of new households through migration make up the new households. The shortage of units arises due to higher density, owner crowding in existing dwelling and sharing of dwellings. Replacement of housing units is required, because every year a part of the existing housing units need replacement or upgrading. This replacement constitutes about 20% of the existing housing stock. Therefore, 20% of the existing housing stock is added to estimate the future housing unit requirement.

 

 

Demand Analysis

For assessment on the demand of various types of housing, the socio-economic status of the population is important. Different income groups have different types of housing. As a result, in the projection and demand of housing, present income status and increase in future income of the various socio-economic groups will be given due importance.

The housing demand (need) assessment process consists of three main components. These are, growth of new households, shortage of existing dwelling units and replacement of old and dilapidated dwelling units. Average household size of the project area is about 4.80 and is more than the national average of about 4.5.

Projected Housing Demand for Sreemongal Pourashava up to 2031

Year

No. of
Household

No. of Dwelling
Unit

Backlog of
Dwelling Unit

Replacement of
Dwelling Unit

Total Demand of
Dwelling Unit

2001

4164

4045

119

405

524

2011

5673

4874

799

487

1286

2016

6621

5349

1272

535

1807

2021

7728

5871

1857

587

2444

2026

9020

6444

2576

644

3220

2031

10527

7073

3454

707

4161

 

Source: 1. BBS, 2001. Estimation by the Consultant (Sheltech Pvt. Ltd)

 

Note: Growth rate for household projection has been considered as 3.14% and Household Size 4.8.

According to Population Census 2001 there was a backlog of 119 dwelling units. On the basis of above calculation and considering the annual growth rates of household and dwelling unit mentioned in BBS 2001, the future demand for 10527 households has been estimated to be 4161 in 2031.